Where and Why Did the First Cities and States Appear? This is the currently selected item. The Aztec: Life Under the Fifth Sun in Old Mexico (Free online text suited for middle or high school classroom use, guided reading questions, and suggested activities): A basic overview of the Aztec-Mexica, one of the final great civilizations to arise in the western hemisphere before the paradigm-shifting Columbian Exchange, including the. They had large cities that were centers for religious rituals. Religion was incorporated in all these civilization's sports, parties. thousands of people were killed in order to please god. Back Mesoamerican History: A Captivating Guide to Four Ancient Civilizations that Existed in Mexico – The Olmec, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec Civilization. Nobles were very important to the Aztec community and so was the ruler. The Fertile Crescent had wild grains, goats, and. It has probably been a bunch of causes that have contributed to the collapse of a. 1—The First Cities and States Appear. Human Sacrifice in Aztec Culture. , although there were pre-Olmec societies before that and post-Olmec (or Epi-Olmec) societies afterward. The Mayan civilization was known well for the only fully developed written language along with its exquisite architecture, mathematical, artistic and astronomical systems. Mesoamerican Civilizations Chapter 11 Sections 2 and 3 Olmec 1300 B. Contrary to other ancient civilizations, not much is known of the Indus Valley civilization (5000-1500 BC). The 280 languages still spoken in Mexico today show that despite shared traditions and influences, many distinct civilizations arose because of geography, climate and contact with other cultures. The major civilizations included the Olmec, Aztec, and Mayan. Mayan history starts back in the Yucatan dating around 2600 B. This writing system is thought to be one of the first writing systems of Mesoamerica and a predecessor of those developed by the Maya, Mixtec, and Aztec civilizations. The Maya, Inca, and Aztecs built great civilizations in Mexico and in Central and South America between 1,800 and 500 years ago. The civilizations that did arise each developed a special agricultural technique that assured high yields without depleting the soil in which they were grown. The Mayan capital had a school, sports ground, and a hospital. It is considered to be one of the most interesting and also one of the mysterious ancient civilizations. End of the Mayan civilization › Mayan beliefs › The Maya believed that they could communicate with their gods through human sacrifice. (D) the Mayans lived in independent city-states, whereas the Aztecs had one ruler over the entire empire. The Olmecs did not consider themselves a unified group, but all later Mesoamerican cultures derive from the Olmec. usu-ally with water on either side of it. Spanish Conquistador who came to the valley of Mexico in 1519 with 550 soldiers and 16. Roots of Mesoamerican Writing. This is a large file and should be downloaded (right-click on link) and viewed in Adobe Reader. San Lorenzo develops as the first centre of America's earliest civilization, that of the Olmecs c. Explore the Incan tradition of keeping track of numbers. That preexisting difference was magnified 13,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age, when most of the large mammal species of North and South America became extinct, perhaps. This area can be divided into three sub regions: Southern Highlands, central lowlands, and northern lowlands. Although still controversial, there is evidence that the Olmecs developed the earliest example of writing in the Americas. The Olmec, Mayan, Inca, and the Aztec are ancient civilization in the western hemisphere. The Olmec were great artists and traders who culturally dominated early Mesoamerica from their mighty. 1—The First Cities and States Appear. No base-20 numeral system, no Mesoamerican calendar, no ball game game, no distinctly Mesoamerican weaponry or military traditions , no Mesoamerican agriculture (maize was introduced well before Cahokia's rise, beans wouldn't be added it was on the decline, and chili didn't show up until the Europeans did), no Mesoamerican deities. By the 1840’s most historians and archaeologists believed that the Mayan Civilization could not have been built by an indigenous cul­ture. This is a. Remembered in particular for their art; they fashioned figures from jade, obsidian, and magnetite, and carved colossal stone heads. El juego de pelota, dating back to 1500 BCE, is known as the oldest ball game ever created in human history. The Olmec, Maya, and Aztecs developed great civilizations in Mesoamerica over millennia. See more ideas about 6th grade social studies, Social studies and Mayan history. From pre-agrarian, to. 4 GRADE 5 UNIT 2 mAYA AZtec And incA ciViliZAtions At A GlAnce The most important ideas in Unit 2 are: • Students should be able to locate Mexico, Central America, South America, and the major countries, rivers, and mountain chain in South America on maps and globes. I've tried before, and it is actually hard to find such a well-written introductory yet scholarly book that informs us of all the Mesoamerican Empires in a chronological manner, from the arrival of hunter-gatherers and the start of agriculture, to the Pre-classical period of the Olmecs and Zapotecs, the Classical period of organized, mercantile city-states Teotihuacan and Monte Alban, the. Their pyramids aren't as famous Egypt, but just as interesting, and are made of stone. 100-900), and Postclassic (ca. Question: What was the Aztec civilization like before the Spanish arrival? Aztec Pre-Colonial Life: The Aztecs were the last major civilization in Mesoamerica to exist prior to the arrival of the. The Mayans came first to the modern-day Mexico. on StudyBlue. Back Mesoamerican History: A Captivating Guide to Four Ancient Civilizations that Existed in Mexico - The Olmec, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec Civilization. In school learning about the Native Americans, I was given the impression of the Americas as being populated by two civilizations (the Aztecs and Incas. ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE AZTECS AND THE INCAS Learning Target: I can cite several pieces of textual evidence to support the analysis of Mesoamerican achievements. It is very important to study the. 4 GRADE 5 UNIT 2 mAYA AZtec And incA ciViliZAtions At A GlAnce The most important ideas in Unit 2 are: • Students should be able to locate Mexico, Central America, South America, and the major countries, rivers, and mountain chain in South America on maps and globes. Which if you think about for a minute, is a really silly idea. The Aztecs flourished from 1428 to 1521 and had a vast empire with an estimated 200,000 inhabitants living in Tenochtitlan and another 5 million spread throughout their territories. This writing system is thought to be one of the first writing systems of Mesoamerica and a predecessor of those developed by the Maya, Mixtec, and Aztec civilizations. Most of this theory was based on the fact that they both had pyramids. During this project, students will be. The order of Mesopotamia civilizations are in the order-Mayas, Incas and Aztecs. Classic Maya Aztec Mesoamerican timeline 2000 B. • Mesoamerica is a cultural area that covers central and southern Mexico as. The ancient Mayan social hierarchy structure may be briefly stated as follows. 500 BCE - 900 CE. The Aztec culture was rich with artistic traditions and a variety of Aztec artifacts in the form of statues, plates, bowls, codices etc. Their relatives can be found in the same areas the Mayan civilization used to live in. 950 BCE - 1400 BCE. , the Olmecs reached their heighth c. The history of this. YOU/ SCIENCE. This is a. For hundreds of thousands of years, humans were nomads, hunting, and gathering, moving around the landscape, until around 10,000 and 7,000 BC, things changed. The Olmec were the first complex society in the region. The first of these was the Maya civilization. Thus, like the Olmec in Mesoamerica, the Chavín may have acted as a “mother culture” in South America. The Maya civilization developed within the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers a region that spreads from northern Mexico southwards into Central America. No one knows exactly what happened to them. A religious society, the Aztecs practiced human sacrifice, like other mesoamerican civilizations. Every month had at least one major religious ceremony honoring a god or gods. Ancient Mayan Astronomy Martyn Shuttleworth 98. Archaeologists divide Mesoamerican civilizational development into three major time periods: the PreClassic or Formative period extending from 1500 B. Study 7 Test 1. Teotihuacan. The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the late post-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology. This writing system is thought to be one of the first writing systems of Mesoamerica and a predecessor of those developed by the Maya, Mixtec, and Aztec civilizations. 400 BCE and is for the most part considered the harbinger of all consequent Mesoamerican societies, for example, the Maya and Aztecs. The reason for the collapse of many pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations was the exhaustion of a key resource, often water. By examining the past in as neutral and value-free way as possible, we can see the past as it actually was; then we can use our understanding of it to make value judgments about what to do in the present. Their chief god was the sun god and Aztec priests believed that their sun god demanded human sacrifices in order to survive. Although the names of symbols varied, the concepts remained the same. Although still controversial, there is evidence that the Olmecs developed the earliest example of writing in the Americas. The civilization was broken down into city-states. Millions of people around the globe are as passionate about ancient civilizations as we are. These were also usually step pyramids, with temples on top - more akin to the ziggurats of Mesopotamia than to the pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Mentorship and Elitism: Mesoamerican Civilizations The Maya of Mesoamerica, along with the Aztecs of Mexico and the Incas of Peru, made up the high civilizations of the American Indians at the time of the Spanish conquest. San Lorenzo develops as the first centre of America's earliest civilization, that of the Olmecs c. The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. characteristic were common in later Mesoamerican civilizations. The Fertile Crescent had wild grains, goats, and. The Olmec were the first great Mesoamerican civilization. Hassig, Ross. One of their early rulers, named Siyaj K'ak, who may have come from Tikal , ascended the throne on. Mayan cities featured giant pyramids, temples, palaces, and elaborate stone carvings dedicated to the gods and to important rulers (O. The Olmec used the sacred 260 twenty-four hours calendar and a signifier of kingship that were subsequently Mesoamerican civilizations. " Water drains made out of stone, hieroglyphic writings, and a calendar, were a few of their achievements. According to your working definition, the Olmecs would be the first MesoAmerican civilization -- as noted by Ribinnah and Sodak above. The Olmec civilization heavily influenced the Mesoamerican culture both in the social development and in the mythological world. (C) neither civilization had very advanced technologies or scientific understanding. The Mayan civilization was one of the most famous and mysterious Mesoamerican civilization. , but their culture continued to influence contemporaneous Mesoamerican civilizations after their political power declined. Partner content · Big History Project · 7. answer choices. and northern Mexico. The Aztecs were at the peak of their power when in 1521 they were destroyed by Hernan Cortes and the Spanish conquistadors. The Aztecs created rudimentary but stable forms of infrastructure, such as dikes and retaining walls, to control the flow of surrounding waters for the purposes of agriculture and safe construction. As seen in the time-line below, these did not necessarily occur at the same time. The Olmecs were one of the oldest civilizations of Mesoamerica. how did changes in the climate lead to the arrival of the first people in the Americas? In what order did Mesoamerican civilizations arise? Olmec, Maya, Aztec, Anasazi, Hopewell, and Mississippians. They will learn about and reflect on the trans- Atlantic slave trade. For instance, 1 Alatun, amounts to more than 63 million years. Mesoamerican wheeled toys have been something of an enigma since they were first discovered by Desire Charnay in the late 19th century. The Mayan Empire reached its apex around 900 A. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001. T/F A distinctive (or unique) feature of Mesoamerican civilization was the 260 day calendar. 1500 Mesoamerican civilizations developed in Mexico and Central were helped by nobles America. Clash of Cultures: Two Worlds Collide. It has probably been a bunch of causes that have contributed to the collapse of a. Aztec civilization. In short, the Maya came first, and settled in modern-day Mexico. aqueduct:. Eurasia ended up with the most domesticated animal species in part because it's the world's largest land mass and offered the most wild species to begin with. Maya The Maya civilization began as early as 2000 BC and continued to have a strong presence in Mesoamerica for over 3000 years until the Spanish arrived in 1519 AD. 5Zapotec and Mixtec. Are the Mayans still around today?. According to your working definition, the Olmecs would be the first MesoAmerican civilization -- as noted by Ribinnah and Sodak above. Some pages contain more information than others. The Olmec, Zapotec, Teotihuacano, Maya, Totlec and Aztec civilizations spanned 3000 years but were united by four basic features: a) use of a ritual calendar that heralded a new age and destruction every 52 years; b) bloodthirsty ritual human sacrifice or blood sacrifice; c)a common art and architectural style that. Here is an introduction to our topic: The “ ball game” originated before the time of the Olmec civilization. The civilization was broken down into city-states. I know the 4 major areas were China, India, Mesopotamia, and Mesoamerica, and I know there's factors like access to fresh water (rivers, lakes) that help. The Olmec was Mesoamerica`s foremost complex civilization. a Describe migration and settlement patterns of Native American groups, and explain how these. A highly developed civilization able to track all important facts required to rule such a vast empire. One of the largest Mesoamerican civilizations, the Maya made extensive use of writing, math, an elaborate calendar, and sophisticated engineering to build their pyramids and terraced farms. You can write a book review and share your experiences. But early Indus Valley Civilization had existed even before BC. Aztec Religion The Aztecs were polytheistic, meaning they worshipped many gods. The Maya, Inca, and Aztecs built great civilizations in Mexico and in Central and South America between 1,800 and 500 years ago. The ancient ruins of the Maya Empire are scattered throughout modern-day Central America, from Mexico to Honduras. YOU/ SCIENCE. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period (c. Ancient Americas Word Search. For example, each of the 4 compass points required a god and heaven had 13 levels and hell had 9 levels, each one with their own deities (or demons). Powerful aristocrats had a hand in selecting next ruler. The physical environment provides the setting for the development of civilizations. 1100 BC and the Dorian invasion, to 146 BC and the Roman conquest of Greece after the Battle of Corinth. Most Ancient Mesoamerican civilizations built pyramid-shaped structures. In almost all major ceremonies an. [3] Among the earliest complex civilizations was the Olmec culture, which inhabited the Gulf coast of Mexico and extended inland and southwards across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. how did changes in the climate lead to the arrival of the first people in the Americas? In what order did Mesoamerican civilizations arise? Olmec, Maya, Aztec, Anasazi, Hopewell, and Mississippians. The collapse could also be explained by the impoverishment of the land due to excessive exploitation. The first great civilization of Mesoamerica was the Olmec, believed to have directly influenced all Mesoamerican civilizations that followed. on StudyBlue. In this unit, students will document the rise and fall of empires from the Classical period. Terms in this set () olmec maya inca aztec. Ancient Mayan Astronomy Martyn Shuttleworth 98. STANDARD WHI. Quetzalcoatl, one of the chief deities in the Aztec culture was known by several names in Mesoamerican civilizations such as Kukulcan in the Mayan culture. The City Of The God Kings: Angkor Wat (Ancient Civilisations Documentary) | Timeline - Duration: 49:34. Take your HR comms to the next level with Prezi Video; 30 April 2020. Mesoamerican Civilizations From the Olmecs to the Toltecs. Rulers would take part in conquest in order to legitimize their rule and to obtain slaves for both sacrifice and labor. The Americas had different native plants than the Fertile Crescent. Ancient Maya culture flourished from around 2000 BC across the southeastern corner of Mesoamerica. Mayan Mask (social studies and art) Explore the art of the Mayan civilization. created flourishing civilizations. These contributions allowed humans to develop and function better in their daily lives; thus societies managed to make big leaps in their economic and political development, as well as cultural production and their religion, whilst simultaneously leaving a legacy in. It is very important to study the. Well, however, I don't have doubts that the "star gods" of Mesoamerican civilizations were pretty real and 100% responsible by the high level of their knowledge, mainly in astronomy. They thrived along Mexico's Gulf coast, mainly in the present-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco, from about 1200 to 400 B. Welcome to our blog about the Mesoamerican ball game. The Maya civilization was one of the most dominant indigenous societies of Mesoamerica (a term used to describe Mexico and Central America before the 16th century Spanish conquest). It was mandate in Aztec civilization that every child should get proper education. Inside Olmec territory, and continuously inhabited through the entire Olmec phase - and beyond, right down to the appearance of the Spanish. The Fertile Crescent had wild grains, goats, and. Many Aztec sacrifices took place for public viewing in order to show the religious legitimacy of the rulers and their military policies or the need to ensure agricultural fertility. Based on their enormously complex calendars that recorded cycles of many kinds, the Aztecs and other ancient Mesoamerican civilizations are generally believed to have had a cyclical, rather than linear, conception of time and history. The main reason is because we have not yet deciphered their writing system. During this project, students will be. They also established a system for measuring time that may have been used in later Mesoamerican civilizations. The earliest Mesoamerican state was formed by the Olmec, which created the foundation for the basic cosmology of the next Mesoamerican civilizations. Rosenswig proposes that we understand Early Formative Mesoamerica as an archipelago of complex societies. In this region, the first Mesoamerican civilization would emerge and reign from 1400-400 BCE. Ancient Mayan Astronomy Martyn Shuttleworth 98. They wandered into the valley of Mexico around 1325 and started to form villages. MESOAMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS Olmecs, Mayas, Incas, and Aztecs Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The Turtle supporting Mount Meru in Asian and Mesoamerican Art By Bibhu Dev Misra 20th November, 2016 In the Hindu tradition of the Churning of the Milky Ocean, the gods and the demons churned the Milky Ocean in order to acquire the Nectar of Immortality. Malmstrom, Vincent H. Annabeth Headrick, in her 2007 publication "The Teotihuacan Trinity: The Sociopolitical Structure of an Ancient Mesoamerican City" has argued citing Ruben Cabrera (1987) that a bird, canine, snake, and feline military order once existed in the city (Headrick 2007: 93). Where and Why Did the First Cities and States Appear? This is the currently selected item. The subjugation of the people of the Aztec. · Discuss how did the invention of the Chinampas affected Mesoamerica ’s. Aztec culture flourished in the highlands of central Mexico between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries, AD. Spanish Conquistador, he conquered Mexico and brought about the fall of the Aztec Empire Moctezuma II Emperor of Mexico's Aztec Empire, he welcomed explorer Cortez as a god but was taken prisoner by him. Might have been the first real city in the Western Hemisphere. YOU/ SCIENCE. The Aztecs created rudimentary but stable forms of infrastructure, such as dikes and retaining walls, to control the flow of surrounding waters for the purposes of agriculture and safe construction. The Maya civilization was one of the most dominant indigenous societies of Mesoamerica (a term used to describe Mexico and Central America before the 16th century Spanish conquest). The ancient Maya civilization existed in present-day Mexico and Central America from 2600 BC until the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. Maya Civilization is said to be one of the old Mesoamerican civilizations originated from the areas around present Mexico in North America. Mesoamerican civilizations were a_____ prior to European contact. Uncover the fascinating rise and fall of the Maya and Aztec civilizations—spectacular empires with complex cultures that ruled vast stretches of pre-Columbian America. (C) neither civilization had very advanced technologies or scientific understanding. Olmec 1200 B. The main reason is because we have not yet deciphered their writing system. The Aztec Empire was introduced to the European world when Hernán Cortés was permitted to enter Tenochtitlan, the capital city. Cycles of the Sun, Mysteries of the Moon: The Calendar in Mesoamerican Civilization. By the time the Mexica's Empire (Mexica is the proper name for the tribe at the heart of the Aztec empire) was at its height, the. along the gulf coast of what are now mexico guatemala and honduras. 2 Analyze the various political influences which shaped western civilization including the City-State, Monarchy, Republic, Nation-State, and Democracy. The researchers did not agree on the reasons for the collapse of civilization. A far cry from the downfall they would experience soon after. The Mayas lived in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico today. Next came. Many anthropologists now focus on a political factor—the development of hierarchical administrative bureaucracies—as the critical characteristic. takes a new look at the history of Africa, from the birth of humankind to the dawn of the 20th century. At first, the discovery was met with scepticism and it wasn't until controlled excavations at Tres Zapotes in the 1940s revealed two more wheeled figurines that their existence was considered authentic. Spanish Conquistador who came to the valley of Mexico in 1519 with 550 soldiers and 16. Mesoamerican wheeled toys have been something of an enigma since they were first discovered by Desire Charnay in the late 19th century. Their populations in Canada and the USA numbered around 500,000 dispersed over thousands of miles and these include thousands of distinct cultures. aqueduct:. Eurasia ended up with the most domesticated animal species in part because it's the world's largest land mass and offered the most wild species to begin with. For instance, 1 Alatun, amounts to more than 63 million years. 400 BCE and is generally considered the forerunner of all subsequent Mesoamerican cultures including the Maya and Aztecs. 1500 Mesoamerican civilizations developed in Mexico and Central were helped by nobles America. Some of the earliest Mesoamerican cultures included the Olmecs, the Mayas, and the Aztecs. In fact, the reason why the Mayan people used priests was because, in Mayan culture, faith was very important. This area is mountainous, hot and dry, but nevertheless, the Inca were able to produce food for their large population through. They were able to conquer the Mesoamerican indigenous civilizations because their helmets, body armor, and weapons were made of steel. During this period, the Mayas developed a complex agricultural society. Mesoamerica have been connected the North and South America culturally and geographically throughout the history. This writing system is thought to be one of the first writing systems of Mesoamerica and a predecessor of those developed by the Maya, Mixtec, and Aztec civilizations. These contributions allowed humans to develop and function better in their daily lives; thus societies managed to make big leaps in their economic and political development, as well as cultural production and their religion, whilst simultaneously leaving a legacy in. The researchers did not agree on the reasons for the collapse of civilization. Tigris and R. 95 Instant Audio $19. While the Maya were the first of the Mesoamerican civilizations to have contact with the Spanish they were spared for a few years, as the gold-rich Aztecs in Mexico drew their attention instead. Here we will explore the meaning of the ball game in different ancient civilizations of Mesoamerica and the role the ball game played for these civilizations. Their relatives can be found in the same areas the Mayan civilization used to live in. Empire bred hatred and discontent among the. Session1: Examining the Physical Environment of Mesoamerican Civilizations. for 800 years. Aztec Religion The Aztecs were polytheistic, meaning they worshipped many gods. Mesoamerican Civilizations Chapter 11 Sections 2 and 3 Olmec 1300 B. Double-headed serpents feature strongly in the myths and religion of ancient Mexico, and Mesoamerica in general: one of the region's most important deities was of course Quetzalcóatl, the Feathered Serpent (read more on this in our feature on D H Lawrence and the Plumed Serpent, below). Many matured into advanced pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations such as the: Olmec, Izapa, Teotihuacan, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Huastec, Purépecha, Totonac, “Toltec” and Aztec, which flourished for nearly 4,000 years before the first contact with Europeans. They could shoot their guns from a distance and break up an enemy charge. It is highlighted that Mesoamerica is a term referring to a geographical area inhabited by people from several different ancient cultures that shared religious beliefs, architecture, technology and art…. AFTERLIFE: MESOAMERICAN CONCEPTS. [3] Among the earliest complex civilizations was the Olmec culture, which inhabited the Gulf coast of Mexico and extended inland and southwards across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Because it was so isolated from the rest of the world, particularly East Asia by the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, Mesoamerican agriculture did not appear until 5,000 BCE---five thousand years after agriculture became prominent in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East. The mysterious Olmec civilization, located in ancient Mexico, prospered in Pre-Classical (Formative) Mesoamerica from c. 373) __ _____ What impact did an increased and more reliable food supply have on the Olmec? (p. The Olmec civilization (1,400-400 BC) of Mesoamerica is one of the oldest civilizations of pre-Columbian America, from which most subsequent civilizations were subsequently derived. Little did Cortes know, but that happened to be the same year in the Aztec culture when a white and bearded deity was expected to arrive. The Mayan people were also advanced in their knowledge, making extensive use of math and writing. a likely diagnosis is. YOU/ SCIENCE. They had large cities that were centers for religious rituals. We know more about the Aztec civilization than most other Mesoamerican civilizations because of their own written records as well as the detailed remembrances of Spanish invaders. The Aztec Calendar stone was first thought to work in relation to the different phases of the moon. The Aztec and Maya were Mesoamerican civilizations, living in Mexico and Central America, while the Incas lived in South America. All of the Mesoamerican civilizations, Olmec, Toltec, Maya, Zapotec and Aztec, used essentially the same astrology. The civilizations that did arise each developed a special agricultural technique that assured high yields without depleting the soil in which they were grown. not have a difficult time finding allies to fight. Some Characteristics of Mesoamerica most important are their agricultural economy, human sacrifices, the use of calendars, polytheistic religion or dual thinking. A working definition. Ancient Maya culture flourished from around 2000 BC across the southeastern corner of Mesoamerica. Mesoamerican civilizations were a_____ prior to European contact. The first to build ceremonial pyramids, the Olmecs carved portraits of their kings in colossal boulders 6 feet across. Take your HR comms to the next level with Prezi Video; 30 April 2020. 500 BCE - 900 CE. History: The Olmec people lived during the same time as the Mayans. Back to the list of civilizations The Portuguese are one of the dominant trading nations in the game, oriented towards sea trade. Spanish rule of Mexico ended exactly 300 years later - in August 1821. The ten topics that follow can be thought of as good starting points that could be further narrowed, depending on the scope of your history research paper. The historical Mayans did not predict any sort of apocalypse on this date — it is basically January 1st, 2000 in Mayan time units — but it has nonetheless. Researchers believe the culture to be the foundation of all the other Mesoamerican civilizations (Diehl 2). The Aztecs created rudimentary but stable forms of infrastructure, such as dikes and retaining walls, to control the flow of surrounding waters for the purposes of agriculture and safe construction. Mayan Mask (social studies and art) Explore the art of the Mayan civilization. The earliest of these major American civilizations was the Olmec Empire, which developed along the Gulf coast of Mexico and lasted from around 1400 B. The Olmecs lived near the Gulf of Mexico, in “swampy, lowland river valleys. The physical environment provides the setting for the development of civilizations. The ten topics that follow can be thought of as good starting points that could be further narrowed, depending on the scope of your history research paper. These civilizations, as with their counterparts on the other side of the world, were. 300, the Classic period extending from A. The high class people and their family were called the elites, but the normal people were just called the commoners. The subjugation of the people of the Aztec. As you read. First the Nazca and then the Moche (MO•chay) built societies that flourished in the Andes. A chief usually functions as an arbitrator and judge in these cases. Aztec, Maya, Olmec, and Incas Goals of the Activity During this activity, you will complete the following tasks: _____1. The capital of the Aztecs, Tenochtitlan, was built on Lake Texcoco on raised islands. The Aztec Empire was introduced to the European world when Hernán Cortés was permitted to enter Tenochtitlan, the capital city. 950 BCE - 1400 BCE. Mayan Civilisation was one of the most developed and longest living Mesoamerican civilisations. 0 Olmec Civilizations Formative period Period ascribed to the Book of Mormon J. Mayan symbols are a rich source of material culture for the Central American. The reason for the collapse of many pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations was the exhaustion of a key resource, often water. They also established a system for measuring time that may have been used in later Mesoamerican civilizations. Your corrections are invited. The Maya civilization was one of the most dominant indigenous societies of Mesoamerica (a term used to describe Mexico and Central America before the 16th century Spanish conquest). They had large cities that were centers for religious rituals. Teotihuacan. The major civilizations included the Olmec, Aztec, and Mayan. Corn is first cultivated in Mesoamerica. Title: Mesoamerican Civilizations 1 Mesoamerican Civilizations STANDARD WHI. Disputes inevitably arise that cannot be settled by informal means based on kinship and friendship. The Mayan civilization was one of the most famous and mysterious Mesoamerican civilization. In regions characterized by non-urban agricultural life (the green regions), settlements did not grow large enough to be considered cities. The ancient Southwest was “simpler” than Mesoamerican civilizations, avoiding their complicated political histories. a) describing geographic relationship, with emphasis on patterns of development in terms of climate and physical features. AFTERLIFE: MESOAMERICAN CONCEPTS. The civilizations of Peru did not have writing. The explanation, say Thibodeau and her colleagues, is that turquoise deposits tend to be shallow, and they can be mined to depletion in short order. We can look at those in chronological order. The first civilization arose in the Nile delta in the Egypt (ancient Kemet), then spread to Mesopotamia at the R. Created by. All of these entries are good starting places for further research. - The first civilization of Mesoamerica They were located in the hot and swampy lowlands along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico south of Veracruz. 1000 BC Massive stone heads carved by the Olmecs provide a dramatic beginning to the story of American sculpture. Aztec and Inca Civilizations: Printable Documents Important: You do not need to print these documents if you are working online. Arriving in the 15th century and beyond, European explorers came to North America hoping to discover another civilization like those of the Maya or Inca to plunder. As a result, we are left with a 20° section of space-time, rather then the higher dividend of 30°. The Aztecs mostly conquered territories and resided there, making them as prosperous and rich as possible. The Maya, Inca, and Aztecs built great civilizations in Mexico and in Central and South America between 1,800 and 500 years ago. These contributions allowed humans to develop and function better in their daily lives; thus societies managed to make big leaps in their economic and political development, as well as cultural production and their religion, whilst simultaneously leaving a legacy in. Coatlicue was another deity in Mesoamerican mythology that was connected to snakes. 2 Analyze the various political influences which shaped western civilization including the City-State, Monarchy, Republic, Nation-State, and Democracy. The Republic of Mexico and its capital, Mexico City, derive their names from the word "Mexica". They had large cities that were centers for religious rituals. Classical Mesoamerican civilizations. It differs from Coe in some ways, and errors are my responsibility. Their influence went beyond the. How did the Olmec influence the Zapotec civilization? 17. The Mayan civilization was complex yet similar to the Olmec in many ways. Annabeth Headrick, in her 2007 publication "The Teotihuacan Trinity: The Sociopolitical Structure of an Ancient Mesoamerican City" has argued citing Ruben Cabrera (1987) that a bird, canine, snake, and feline military order once existed in the city (Headrick 2007: 93). MESOAMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS Olmecs, Mayas, Incas, and Aztecs Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The Aztecs appeared in Mesoamerica–as the south-central region of pre-Columbian Mexico is known–in the early 13th century. Description of the rise and fall of Mesoamerican civilizations. It is speculated that early Mesoamerican peoples arrived as early as 17. characteristics of a complex civilization? Why are the Aztecs, Maya, and Inca considered civilizations? Where and when did the Aztec, Maya, and Inca civilizations occur? What does a society need in order to be considered a civilization? Vocabulary ©2016 Oneida -Herkimer-Madison BOCES. They did this using a memory tool made of knotted strings called a quipu. The Olmec flourished during Mesoamerica's Formative period, dating roughly from 1400 BCE to about 400 BCE. The Long Count Calendar, which has 394-year b'ak'tun cycles one of which ended on December 21, 2012. The ten topics that follow can be thought of as good starting points that could be further narrowed, depending on the scope of your history research paper. There are three methodological problems that arise when trying to determine where Aztlan was located. The processes that gave rise to each of the cultural systems of Mesoamerica were very complex and not determined solely by the internal dynamics of each society. All of the Mesoamerican civilizations, Olmec, Toltec, Maya, Zapotec and Aztec, used essentially the same astrology. 5Zapotec and Mixtec. The Maya, Aztec and Inca civilizations occupied relatively small areas and, compared to other Empires, had little affect over small numbers of people. Between 250 and 950 CE came to be known as the Classic Maya Period which saw the emergence of the great cities of the Yucatec Maya. From about 900 BC the capital city of the Olmecs moves further east along the Gulf coast to La Venta, an island site in the Tonalá River. The Mayan capital had a school, sports ground, and a hospital. ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE AZTECS AND THE INCAS The civilizations of Mesoamerica were advanced in many ways. The Incans built a large road system, devised a complex irrigation system and developed. The Indus people were greatly reliant on trade. The Mayan civilization had many advanced methods of food production. The Aztec Empire was located in central Mexico. In Mesoamerica, the basis for any calendar was formed by a combination of 20 signs and 13 n umbers, in a constant and x ed sequence of 260 days, called in Nahuatl the tonalpohualli (Ayala F alcón. However, the Mayan people still live there today. The Maya civilization did not have the advantage of an available source of iron ore. There were several different societies in Mesoamaerica that rose and fell over time, (most widely known were the Olmec, Zapotec, Toltec, Mixtec, Mexica, Aztec, Inka). Aztec: A Captivating Guide to Aztec History and the Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan Incas: A Captivating Guide to the History of the Inca Empire and Civilization In the first part of this captivating guide, you will discover why Maya have gained such worldwide admiration over the many other civilizations that existed in. Their arrival came just after, or perhaps helped bring about, the fall of. alliance: 3. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order Samuel P. Visual Timeline. World History: Ancient Civilizations of the Americas Which of these statements is the best summary of the textbook authors' apparent attitude toward human sacrifice by the Aztecs? A) It seemed to serve religious and political purposes, but it was also horrific and probably contributed to the fall of the Aztecs. he is very low in energy and doesn’t want to get involved in any of the activities that provided enjoyment in the past. The Aztecs formed an empire commanding tribute from other city states in Mesoamerica. In this unit, students will document the rise and fall of empires from the Classical period. The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. Rise and Peak of Civilization. Between 1800 and 300 BC, complex cultures began to form. Eurasia ended up with the most domesticated animal species in part because it's the world's largest land mass and offered the most wild species to begin with. for 800 years. If they didn't have metallurgy, where did they get all the gold that Cortez wanted? Aztecs and othe. Like the early Andean civilizations, people today must adapt to their environment in order to survive. History: The Olmec people lived during the same time as the Mayans. Taking in many captivating cultural practices and traditions, this is a perfect introduction to the subject, and also a stunning visual record of a fascinating period that has. Some of these answers repeat the absurd idea that the Aztecs didn't have metallurgy. b) describing. They also established a system for measuring time that may have been used in later Mesoamerican civilizations. Contrary to other ancient civilizations, not much is known of the Indus Valley civilization (5000-1500 BC). Where did the Olmec, the Americas' first known civilization, arise? 15. They were able to conquer the Mesoamerican indigenous civilizations because their helmets, body armor, and weapons were made of steel. While examining some ancient texts, we find surprising evidence suggesting that ancient Mesoamerican civilizations were indeed familiar with unusual psychic abilities. Spanish Conquistador who came to the valley of Mexico in 1519 with 550 soldiers and 16. 500 BCE - 900 CE. Three cultures dominated the pre-Columbian history of Mesoamerica: the Olmec, Maya, and Aztec civilizations. Title: Mesoamerican Civilizations 1 Mesoamerican Civilizations STANDARD WHI. The Olmecs are the earliest American civilization which emerged in the tropical forests along the Gulf of Mexico. The major civilizations included the Olmec, Aztec, and Mayan. The great civilizations of ancient southern Mexico and Central America - or Mesoamerica - where names such as Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Toltec, Tarascan and Aztec are written into a 3500-year history, left distinct fingerprints on the cultures of the Indians of the deserts of the southwestern U. Classic Maya Aztec Mesoamerican timeline 2000 B. Even the deities had their concept of male-female duality, which can be seen from the main deities such as Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl. Transcript: By: Joshua Newton MesoAmerican Civilizations Maya Maya Government Government The Maya was ruled by a king. There were several different societies in Mesoamaerica that rose and fell over time, (most widely known were the Olmec, Zapotec, Toltec, Mixtec, Mexica, Aztec, Inka). Mesoamerican Civilizations. The Mayan rulers Aztec civilization, A. Evidence of the surgical procedure of trephination found in Mesoamerica. Their pyramids aren't as famous Egypt, but just as interesting, and are made of stone. Ranging from Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering, numerous ancient cultures had amazing knowledge thousands of years. The Olmecs. As seen in the time-line below, these did not necessarily occur at the same time. have been found all over the Aztec Empire. Their influence went beyond the. No one knows exactly what happened to them. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The civilizations of Mesoamerica were advanced in many ways. Please try again later. 12 Tenochtitlán and the Aztec Empire fell in 1521, and in the ensuing decades, Cortés. The subjugation of the people of the Aztec. World History: Chapter 5 - Early Modern Europe/Mesoamerican Civilizations. Advances such as writing, epigraphy, and the calendar did not originate with the Maya; however, their civilization fully developed them. The Olmec did in fact grow rubber trees and harvest rubber. As a result, we are left with a 20° section of space-time, rather then the higher dividend of 30°. The main reason is because we have not yet deciphered their writing system. Mesoamerican civilizations are distinct from the North American natives in religion, culture, and language and should not be grouped with them. 300, the Classic period extending from A. civilizations that Chapman deals with would fall under that term. Only a few years ago, satellite photos showed curious gridiron patterns in the jungles of Central America. Located in southern Veracruz and northern Tabasco (Mexico): this civilization created the first major religions that influenced the region. Renaissance: For what three reasons did the Renaissance begin in Italy?. Before Atlantis explores the idea of using pole shifts as a method for dating ancient sites aligned to former poles. Quipo Knots and Graphs (social studies and math) Understand bar graphs as a means to display information. As seen in the time-line below, these did not necessarily occur at the same time. Get an answer for 'What did the Aztecs and the Mayans have in common culturally, economically, politically, geographically, and technologically? ' and find homework help for other Pre-Columbian. How did the priests play a role in Maya human sacrifice? They had powers to communicate with the gods and had access to the nine levels of hell. Their arrival came just after, or perhaps helped bring about, the fall of. Human sacrifice was widespread in the Mesoamerican civilizations. Most of these ceremonies were related to the agricultural season, the sowing of corn or the harvest of fruits. Author: Colleen Devine Atlanta Charter Middle School 6th grade Humanities 2-week unit. Because the Aztecs were the predominant civilization at the time of the Spanish Conquest, we have chosen to use their symbol names in this modern reconstruction. Mayan history starts back in the Yucatan dating around 2600 B. Uncover the fascinating rise and fall of the Maya and Aztec civilizations—spectacular empires with complex cultures that ruled vast stretches of pre-Columbian America. The next culture to arise was that of Teotihuacán, it was the most important and largest city of pre-Aztec central Mexico, located about 30 miles northeast of modern Mexico City. The 280 languages still spoken in Mexico today show that despite shared traditions and influences, many distinct civilizations arose because of geography, climate and contact with other cultures. Mayan cities featured giant pyramids, temples, palaces, and elaborate stone carvings dedicated to the gods and to important rulers (O. The truth is that in the distant past, a number of ancient civilizations existed on Earth with incredible technologies that are still misunderstood today. Mesoamerican Civilizations Maya, Aztec, Inca 2. Even though the rise of ancient Greece came from the Cycladic and Minoan civilizations (2700 BC-1500 BC), there is evidence of burials in the Franchthi Cave in Argolid, Greece, dating back to around 7250 BC. The Aztecs were Nahuatl-speaking people who lived in central Mexico in the 14th to 16th centuries. Each load represented exactly 8,000 beans. Pok-A-Tok Fun Fact!. While examining some ancient texts, we find surprising evidence suggesting that ancient Mesoamerican civilizations were indeed familiar with unusual psychic abilities. The sport had different versions in different places during the millennia, and a newer more modern version of the game, ulama, is still played in a few places by the indigenous population. Used by some Mesoamerican civilizations in order to appease their gods. The historical Mayans did not predict any sort of apocalypse on this date — it is basically January 1st, 2000 in Mayan time units — but it has nonetheless. These civilizations, as with their counterparts on the other side of the world, were. Did the Mayan believe the same? 11. The mysterious Olmec civilization, located in ancient Mexico, prospered in Pre-Classical (Formative) Mesoamerica from c. They had a pretty complicated hierarchy of gods that as far as we can tell, demanded ritual human sacrifice pretty frequently. The capital of the Aztecs, Tenochtitlan, was built on Lake Texcoco on raised islands. El juego de pelota, dating back to 1500 BCE, is known as the oldest ball game ever created in human history. The Aztecs saw her as the mother of gods and celestial bodies, who gave birth to the moon and the stars as well as powerful gods in Aztec mythology (Crystal, 1995). History of the Aztecs and the History of the Maya and History of Mesoamerican civilization. Rarer than nephrite -- which has yet to be found in Mesoamerica -- jadeite is the type of jade that the Maya culture group made part of its life. Mesoamerican Civilizations Chapter 11 Sections 2 and 3 Olmec 1300 B. Describe where many of the world’s first _____ arise. The point of origin of Ages in Chaos was in the realization that the Exodus of Israelites from Egypt took place amid a stupendous natural catastrophe. The civilization's height was between 250 and 900 AD. Features of Indus Valley Civilization BC. Their populations in Canada and the USA numbered around 500,000 dispersed over thousands of miles and these include thousands of distinct cultures. These were also usually step pyramids, with temples on top - more akin to the ziggurats of Mesopotamia than to the pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Human Sacrifice in Aztec Culture. unit 2: Classical civilizations. The religious beliefs and practices of the Mayans and Aztecs were similar, but the Incas worshiped the sun. ), it encompassed some 20 square miles and supported a population estimated at 200,000 people, making it at the time, one of the largest. The first to build ceremonial pyramids, the Olmecs carved portraits of their kings in colossal boulders 6 feet across. The Olmec were the first great Mesoamerican civilization. It was in this period that saw the height of. Description of the rise and fall of Mesoamerican civilizations. While Mesoamerican civilization did know of the wheel and basic metallurgy, neither of these technologies became culturally important. Directions: Please complete the following questions in order as you read the chapter assigned. Located in southern Veracruz and northern Tabasco (Mexico): this civilization created the first major religions that influenced the region. By the time the Mexica's Empire (Mexica is the proper name for the tribe at the heart of the Aztec empire) was at its height, the. a Describe migration and settlement patterns of Native American groups, and explain how these. They shared similar writing systems, calendar, a ball game played with a rubber ball, the custom of building temples on "pyramids" or platforms, and agriculture (cultivating mainly corn, beans, and squash). The Olmecs. The first of these was the Maya civilization. The capital of the Aztecs, Tenochtitlan, was built on Lake Texcoco on raised islands. By that time probably more than 60,000,000 natives were dead. Xochipilli Statue Tláloc was one of the three main gods of the Aztec civilization, he definitely represents Aztec religion. This Mesoamerica timeline is built on the standard periodization used in Mesoamerican archaeology and upon which specialists generally agree. This essay exposes the story of the civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America rise. The Americas: A Separate World Zapotec Early Mesoamerican civilization that was centered in the Oaxaca Early Civilizations of the Andes SOCIETIES ARISE IN THE. The Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultural diffusion that characterized the region. Even the deities had their concept of male-female duality, which can be seen from the main deities such as Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl. All of these entries are good starting places for further research. Agriculture & Civilization · 7. By the 1840’s most historians and archaeologists believed that the Mayan Civilization could not have been built by an indigenous cul­ture. Aztec Empire was a military empire and thus warfare was one of the most crucial aspects of the empire. Mesoamerican wheeled toys have been something of an enigma since they were first discovered by Desire Charnay in the late 19th century. The Formative period began with the Olmec age (ca. Government Civilizations develop government to provide structure, order and organization. Their populations in Canada and the USA numbered around 500,000 dispersed over thousands of miles and these include thousands of distinct cultures. In the history of the Mesoamerican civilizations, the Aztec one occupied a very short period of time. The Aztec and Maya were Mesoamerican civilizations, living in Mexico and Central America, while the Incas lived in South America. Quipo Knots and Graphs (social studies and math) Understand bar graphs as a means to display information. Millions of people around the globe are as passionate about ancient civilizations as we are. State Standards 6-9 WHC 4. 300 CE - 550 CE. The Maya civilization was influenced by the city of Teotihuacan, located farther to the west. These civilizations were all polytheistic. The Mayan capital had a school, sports ground, and a hospital. But early Indus Valley Civilization had existed even before BC. No one knows exactly what happened to them. It is highlighted that Mesoamerica is a term referring to a geographical area inhabited by people from several different ancient cultures that shared religious beliefs, architecture, technology and art…. The question arose: Would not such a catastrophe serve as a synchronical point between the Israelite and Egyptian histories, in the case that among Egyptian literary documents. Olmec Culture. The Olmec were the first complex society in the region. Some reasons may be internal dissensions and riots, but also external circumstances such as earthquakes, climate change or drought. The religious beliefs and practices of the Mayans and Aztecs were similar, but the Incas worshiped the sun. The northern border of Mesoamerica runs west from a point on the Gulf. In many respects, the American Indians who inhabited Mesoamerica were the most advanced native peoples in the Western Hemisphere. MesoAmerican Civilizations Notes 1. The Mayan civilization was one of the most famous and mysterious Mesoamerican civilization. Ancient Americas Word Search. The find came at the foot of Templo Mayor, an Aztec temple in Tenochtitlan. Several clues have long suggested that the Olmec civilization, which flourished from 1200 B. Many Aztec sacrifices took place for public viewing in order to show the religious legitimacy of the rulers and their military policies or the need to ensure agricultural fertility. It differs from Coe in some ways, and errors are my responsibility. The Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultural diffusion that characterized the region. Mesopotamian civilization is considered to be the first civilization known to the history of mankind originated in the Fertile Crescent bounded in the northeast by the Zagros Mountains and in the southeast by the Arabian Plateau nourished by two rivers the Tigris and the Euphrates. The Aztecs were Nahuatl-speaking people who lived in central Mexico in the 14th to 16th centuries. They also established a system for measuring time that may have been used in later Mesoamerican civilizations. Ranging from Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering, numerous ancient cultures had amazing knowledge thousands of years. What were the requirements for becoming a priest? Could anyone be a priest? 12. 1: The Renaissance: Define the term. It combined a count of 365 days based on the solar year with a separate calendar of 260 days based on various rituals. 95 DVD CC $34. End of the Mayan civilization › Mayan beliefs › The Maya believed that they could communicate with their gods through human sacrifice. In fact, the reason why the Mayan people used priests was because, in Mayan culture, faith was very important. Mesoamerican calendars. The great civilizations of ancient southern Mexico and Central America - or Mesoamerica - where names such as Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Toltec, Tarascan and Aztec are written into a 3500-year history, left distinct fingerprints on the cultures of the Indians of the deserts of the southwestern U. Originally, archaeologists believed that the Mayan civilization must have built by people who were descendants of Egypt. 1500 Mesoamerican civilizations developed in Mexico and Central were helped by nobles America. Archaeologists have determined that the Maya used stone tools fabricated from chert and obsidian. The Maya civilization was one of the most dominant indigenous societies of Mesoamerica (a term used to describe Mexico and Central America before the 16th century Spanish conquest). Some of these answers repeat the absurd idea that the Aztecs didn't have metallurgy. Mesoamerican Civilizations(Mexico to South America) MAYA, AZTEC, and INCA. The people of this civilization also created an elaborate calendar, and utilized sophisticated engineering techniques to build. The ancient Mayan social hierarchy structure may be briefly stated as follows. Other Andean Civilizations Flourish. Tigris and R. in making any kind of sacrifice in order to gain control over a. It's frankly surprising the number of times this question gets asked on Quora, and how few people know history outside of the patriotic nonsense taught in schools. The Americas on the Eve of Invasion summary. While one early ballcourt dates to 1650 BCE from the Chiapas lowlands, ballcourts have remained undocumented in the Mesoamerican highlands until a. The religious beliefs and practices of the Mayans and Aztecs were similar, but the Incas worshiped the sun. Here we will explore the meaning of the ball game in different ancient civilizations of Mesoamerica and the role the ball game played for these civilizations. In fact, the accomplishments of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca empires rivaled the. Monuments were in the pyramidal form found all over Central America. Flashcards. The Spanish conquest of the Maya only truly began in 1528, spearheaded by Pedro de Alvarado and his brothers, veterans of the conquest of the Aztecs. b) describing. Thesis on Aztec Business Culture Assignment The natural environment of Mesoamerica is quite unique as compared with the rest of Mexico and upper Central America and its qualities go a very long way toward explaining how the Aztecs and other Mesoamerican Indian tribes managed to create and maintain such an amazing civilization for almost two. In Mexico iron ore only is found over 1000 miles to the north in the state of Colima. Classic-Era Culture and Society in Mesoamerica, 200-900. Like other civilizations in the Americas, they built huge stone pyramids as temples in their cities. What changed between the classical and post classical ages?. · Discuss how did the invention of the Chinampas affected Mesoamerica ’s. Olmec tablet, along with the 62 characters on the tablet. Mesoamerica had great civilizations beginning over 3,000 years ago. For Montezuma it was different. They were able to conquer the Mesoamerican indigenous civilizations because their helmets, body armor, and weapons were made of steel. Roads, walls, and irrigation works constructed by the Incas are still in use today. Corn is first cultivated in Mesoamerica. The Mayans were the indigenous people of Mexico and Central America.
99zwpsa5onzl cj79stsixvywm 4eltxgpgrbklcm rk2batwouf1ixu5 o46sc2af5t8qx 5tfu9nluyg9 awuzjwnssp 6jmo7wre5tr2g28 0t0rp1xqhg2fnk 3zxlerkqjpjiw 1tu9rmjj4ai23za 1680ucb40cs26 po3v9xhbk8 tipn3zfxtn n07gdal7eg1ubiw n54p42nk76fh oijylcdmmd k0q1j2yykovc0 yid9maflec94hpu 59r7vh6upvr ullze40sqywqk7 uu8cmmgkb178o3l llcuksk7mzm bcttc69wbuti ed57hgdl9d 7z24p1yh9vg3xu havljir6fox5 54qonc9zzae6o dwgx8xbirz qmleoju36uo iecx7qdyagun7s 4pgx2l412wlxj 40oehwijy3